25 Julho 2017, 10:46 - Fátima Sampaio
Candidate: Fernando Pedro Pascoal dos Santos n.º 64757/D
Title: Collective dynamics of cooperation
Location: Sala 1.38, Taguspark, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa
Advisor: Professor Francisco João Duarte Cordeiro Correia dos Santos
Co-advisors: Professora Ana Maria Severino de Almeida e Paiva and Professor Jorge Manuel dos Santos Pacheco
Abstract: Explaining cooperation is one of the biggest challenges of the XXIst century. Understanding its evolutionary dynamics is fundamental to comprehend the origin of societies, institutions and the own human nature. Simultaneously, cooperation models may explain the sparing engagement in tackling contemporary problems – such as climate change, international conflict, corruption or economic poverty and inequality – providing a toolkit to experiment effective policies and novel interaction paradigms. In this thesis, we employ computational and mathematical methods (inspired in evolutionary game theory and artificial intelligence learning algorithms) to explore collective dynamics in three very specific domains that, hopefully, allow us to contribute to the wide challenge of understanding cooperation. First, we explore which social norms – here the rules that classify behaviours as good or bad – are able to promote cooperation. The formal link between social norms and cooperation is established with models of indirect reciprocity (IR). IR models comprise individuals who adopt heuristics for deciding to cooperate or defect based on reputations that spread in a population after each interaction. Second, we will explore cooperation in the context of multiplayer ultimatum games where, besides dealing with a continuous strategy space, we consider group interactions in which individuals can jointly sacrifice their earnings to immediately punish selfish opponents. Third, we will explore the scenario of asymmetric games of cooperation. These are useful to model the multi-sectorial interactions that occur in our society, for instance, when public, private and civil agents take part in socio-political dilemmas.