Biomateriais, Nanotecnologia e Medicina Regenerativa
This scientific area integrates a set of technologies which have as a common point the controlled interaction, at the micro and nanoscale, of complex artificial constructs with biomolecules, cells and tissues. High impact applications in biotechnology and medicine are the goal, in particular in the development of novel strategies for biodiagnostics and regenerative medicine.
Although biomaterials are primarily used for medical applications, they are also used to grow cells in culture, to assay for blood proteins in the clinical laboratory, in processing biomolecules in biotechnology, for fertility regulation implants in cattle, in diagnostic gene arrays, in the aquaculture of oysters and for investigational cell-silicon "biochips." The commonality of these applications is the interaction between biological systems and synthetic or modified natural materials.
The engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Nanobiotechnology consists on the application of nanotechnology concepts to bioengineering and biological sciences, in lab-on-a-chip systems, novel biosensors, nanoparticles for drug delivery, surface functionalization, etc. Bionanotechnology consists in the translation of biological concepts for engineering applications, namely taken from neural sciences, systems biology, biomaterials and biomimetims.
Regenerative medicine is an interdisciplinary field of research and clinical applications focused on the repair, replacement or regeneration of cells, tissues or organs to restore impaired function resulting from any cause, including congenital defects, disease, trauma and ageing. It uses a combination of several converging technological approaches, both existing and newly emerging, that moves it beyond traditional transplantation and replacement therapies. The approaches often stimulate and support the body's own self-healing capacity. These approaches may include, but are not limited to, the use of soluble molecules, gene therapy, stem and progenitor cell therapy, tissue engineering and the reprogramming of cell and tissue types.
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